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Psychosocial hazards

For: Employers and managers Information seekers

Good work is good for people’s mental health and wellbeing. It provides structure and purpose, a sense of identity, and opportunities to develop skills and increased feelings of self-worth.

There are some circumstances, however, where work has undesirable impacts on health and wellbeing.

Subscribe: proposed changes to the WHS laws
The Australian Government is considering amendments to Commonwealth WHS laws for managing psychosocial risks and hazards. The proposed changes include amended Model WHS Regulations and a Model Code of Practice.

The regulations and code will not apply in the Commonwealth/Comcare jurisdiction until they are added to the Federal Register of Legislation.

Stay up to date on the changes and supporting education resources via Comcare eNews - select ‘Regulatory and Legislation’ and/or ‘Education, Training and Events’.

Eliminate psychosocial hazards

Psychosocial hazards are aspects of work which have the potential to cause psychological or physical harm.

Bullying in the workplace

Workplace bullying is repeated, unreasonable behaviour directed towards a worker or group of workers, that creates a risk to health and safety.

Examples of workplace bullying include offensive language, intimidating behaviour, belittling comments, practical jokes or unjustified criticism.

Bullying in the workplace is often the result of poor workplace culture supported by an environment which allows this behaviour to occur. Identifying and dealing with bullying and other workplace conflict early helps promote respectful behaviour and prevents bullying from becoming accepted behaviour.

If you are a worker, for more information about workplace bullying and the assistance Comcare can provide in these cases, see Dealing with Workplace Bullying and Requesting Comcare Assistance information sheet for workers (PDF, 184.7 KB).

For more information on the risk and how to prevent and respond to bullying in the workplace, see Bullying by Safe Work Australia.

Resources for employers

Resources to assist employers to fulfil their responsibilities:

Workplace bullying support pack for employers:

Resources for employees and other workers

Resources for workers concerned about inappropriate workplace behaviour or bullying:


Fatigue is more than feeling tired and drowsy. It is an acute, ongoing state of tiredness that leads to mental or physical exhaustion and prevents people from functioning normally.

Fatigue is a physical condition that can occur when a person’s physical or mental limits are reached.

Signs of fatigue include:

  • tiredness even after sleep
  • reduced hand-eye coordination or slow reflexes
  • short term memory problems and an inability to concentrate
  • blurred vision or impaired visual perception
  • a need for extended sleep during days off work.

Most industries are affected to some degree by fatigue. However, some types of work and sectors have an inherently higher risk of fatigue, particularly those involving shift work or long-haul transportation:

For more information on the risks and remedies, see:

Mental stress

Work-related mental stress is the worker’s reaction when workplace demands and responsibilities are greater than the worker can comfortably manage or are beyond the worker’s abilities. It can affect each worker differently and originate from different sources.


Mental stress causes the body to move into a fight or flight reaction which releases adrenaline and cortisol, raises the heart rate, boosts glucose levels in the bloodstream and diverts energy from the immune system to other areas of the body.

This reaction helps people remove themselves from danger at which time the body usually returns to normal.

When mental stress is prolonged, the body will not return to normal as easily and many key body systems can be affected and may start to break down causing major health problems.

In the workplace, the symptoms of stress can translate to personal and business costs, such as:

  • breakdown of individual and team relationships
  • poor morale and erosion of worker loyalty and commitment
  • increased absenteeism and staff turnover
  • reduced employee efficiency and workplace productivity and profitability
  • increased employer costs associated with counselling, worker assistance and mediation
  • increased workers’ compensation claims and employer legal costs.


The Job Demands-Resources model of occupational stress highlights that employees need to balance both the demands of a job and the resources available to them in the workplace, to reduce work-related mental stress.

High levels of job demand and low levels of job resources increase the risk of mental stress.

Job demands can include:

  • role overload
  • role ambiguity or conflict
  • mental and emotional demands of the job
  • conflict arising from tasks or relationships

Job resources and strengths can include:

  • job control
  • supervisor and co-worker support
  • praise and recognition
  • following fair and just process
  • change consultation.

In practice, preventing and managing stress in the workplace before it becomes a risk to health and safety may be achieved by:

  • having senior management commitment to reducing workplace stress
  • consulting with workers to create and promote a mentally healthy workplace culture
  • ensuring the organisation has appropriate policies and procedures in place and workers are aware of these
  • managing workplace psychosocial risk factors
  • providing regular and respectful performance feedback
  • having a dedicated harassment officer – sometimes known as a contact officer, equal opportunity officer or equity contact officer – in place for workers to speak to
  • providing training around managing workplace and individual stress levels.

More information

Overseas work

Under the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 (WHS Act), the duties of a person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU) and an officer’s obligations in respect to managing workers overseas are identical to workers onshore.

Each overseas project has its own psychosocial and physical hazards and risks. The PCBU needs to consider, take reasonably practicable steps, and document the steps to address the health and safety risks of managing the overseas project and travel.

For more information, see:

Remote or isolated work

Working alone or remotely increases the risks to physical and psychological health in any job. Exposure to violence and poor access to emergency assistance are among the common hazards associated with remote or isolated work.

Remedies depend on the conditions and context of the work, but may include:

  • relocate the work
  • provide vehicles, equipment, tools and communication equipment suitable for use in the terrain
  • have at least two workers in remote locations
  • ensure workers are physically and mentally fit to perform the work
  • provide appropriate training about working in remote or isolated environments
  • avoid riskier times of the day, such as excessive heat, cold, storms and when the circadian rhythm wants the body to sleep
  • ensure adequate facilities for workers including toilets, drinking water, eating facilities and personal storage
  • provide accommodation
  • have a check-in process where workers must contact ‘home base’ at a nominated time
  • have an emergency response plan if workers fail to report in at allotted times.

For more information on the risks and remedies, see:

Workplace change

Change is constant in working life and can bring positive results for organisations and workers like better productivity, clarity of role and increased work satisfaction. It can also be challenging and can affect morale and engagement if it isn’t managed well.

In times of change, it’s important to consider your work health and safety management systems and integrate these into the change process to monitor and prevent risks to workers.

Workers are more likely to embrace change when it is supported by consultation and effective communication, and this can improve health and productivity.

Poor change management can lead to psychological injures and other adverse health outcomes, as well as reduced productivity.

During change, it is important for organisations to focus on these key elements to help protect workers from psychological harm:

  • Consultation
  • Prevention
  • Early intervention
  • Recovery at and return to work
  • Leadership.

Machinery of Government changes

Comcare’s work health and safety jurisdiction is uniquely impacted by organisational change associated with Machinery of Government (MoG).

These are major decisions around restructuring – including creating or abolishing entities, and moving and changing agency functions – and they can have health and safety consequences for workers.

Australian Public Service employers need to consider and effectively manage the health and safety risks associated with implementing MoG changes. Agencies must be aware of their WHS responsibilities – appropriately identifying hazards, particularly psychosocial hazards, carrying out risk assessments and implementing mitigation processes.

Section 47 of the Work Health and Safety Act 2011 requires employers to consult, so far as is reasonably practicable, with workers who are (or are likely to be) directly affected by a health and safety matter.

During MoG changes, consultation should focus on how the changes are going to be implemented, and there should be ongoing communication and consultation with workers throughout the transition to their new work arrangements.

Situations and environments impacting workers’ health and safety may include:

  • Taking on new roles and relationships
  • Merged organisational cultures
  • Changed workplace expectations
  • Increased workload
  • New approaches to work
  • Voluntary or involuntary redundancies.

Comcare resources:

More information:

Workplace violence or customer aggression

Workplace or occupational violence can be any incident where a person is abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances arising out of, or in the course of their work.

The violence can be either directed at the person or as a result of witnessing violence against someone else.

Examples of violence may include:

  • biting, spitting, scratching, hitting, kicking
  • punching, pushing, shoving, tripping, grabbing
  • throwing objects
  • verbal threats
  • aggravated assault
  • any form of indecent physical contact
  • threatening someone with a weapon or armed robbery.

For more information on the risks and remedies, see Work-related violence by Safe Work Australia

Work health and safety (WHS) matters

Model Code of Practice: Managing psychosocial hazards at work

Safe Work Australia has published a model Code of Practice for managing psychosocial hazards in workplaces.

Development of the code, and related changes to the model WHS regulations, were key recommendations of the 2018 review of the model WHS laws.

The code and regulations will come into effect in the Comcare jurisdiction when they are added to the federal register of legislation.

More information:

Notify us of an incident

The ‘person conducting a business or undertaking’ (PCBU) – who is usually the employer – is responsible for reporting notifiable incidents to Comcare.

An incident is notifiable if it results from the conduct of the business or undertaking and causes the death of a person, serious injury or serious illness of a person, or is a dangerous incident.

See Responding to an incident for information on how to notify us and other responsibilities such as preserving the site.

Inform us of a WHS concern

If you are a worker or member of the public, you can inform us of a work health and safety (WHS) concern or contact us if you have a WHS enquiry.

Email or call us on 1300 366 979.

Workers are encouraged to speak with their employer or health and safety representative (HSR) about their concern in the first instance, if comfortable to do so. This ensures that the employer is aware of the work health and safety concern and provides them with an opportunity to resolve the issue.

After you contact us, we will respond to you within five business days. We will advise you of actions that can be taken and will also let you know if there is another agency or support you can contact.

If you are unable to speak with your employer or HSR, or do not believe that reasonable efforts are being made to resolve the issue, Comcare may assist in facilitating a resolution.

Training on psychological health and safety

Training on mentally healthy workplaces

We provide training through our learning management system called Comcare LMS.

To access our training, you first need to create an account in Comcare LMS (see the steps to create an account). Then, select the training item that you are interested in and login with your email and password.

For more information about the training we offer, see Training and learning.

Page last reviewed: 18 August 2022
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GPO Box 9905, Canberra, ACT 2601
1300 366 979 |

Date printed 10 Dec 2022